Telecommunications is the communication of information over distances and includes electronic transmission of impulses by telephone, computer and television. The beginning of telecommunications started with the invention of the telephone in 1874.
Today it has evolved from basic voice conversation to combining voice, video and data. Since communications in only one direction is ineffective, telecommunication systems can handle two-way communications. There are essentially three types of telecom copper cables or outside plant cables: The first is known as aerial cable, which is used above ground; duct/buried cables are used below ground; and the third consists of wire products used as the last link in bringing telecommunication services to the subscriber. Water is the most harmful environmental element for outside plant cables as it can corrode the shields and conductors; affect the electrical performance; and enter the cable through holes in the jacket caused by rocks, rodents, lightning and insects. Therefore, the jacket material must be tough and water-resistant, typically made of a black low-density polyethylene.