In this review article, as in the previous one, the countries of the MENA region have been grouped into three sub regions.


Gulf Region & Arabian Peninsula

Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Yemen, Iraq and Iran: this sub-region includes all the six countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) plus three of their neighbours.


North Africa

Libya, Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria and Sudan:

this grouping covers four of the five Maghreb countries plus Egypt and Sudan.


Near East

Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine: this sub-region includes four countries that border the Eastern Mediterranean, plus two neighbours. This area, excluding Turkey, is also known as the Levant.