For convenience, in this review article the countries of the MENA region
have been grouped into three sub regions.

Gulf Region & Arabian Peninsula
Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Yemen, Iraq and Iran. This includes all the six countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) plus three of their neighbours.

North Africa
Libya, Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria and Sudan. This grouping covers four of the five Maghreb countries plus Egypt and Sudan.


Near East
Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. This includes four countries that border the Eastern Mediterranean, plus two neighbours. This area, excluding Turkey, is also known as the Levant region.